Current epizootic situation and forecast for 2015 about main helminthosis in animals on the territory of Russia

Russian Journal of Parasitology
Article history:
Received 28.12.2015
Accepted 14.01.2015
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Current epizootic situation and forecast for 2015 about main helminthosis in animals on the territory of Russia

V. V. Gorokhov, N. A. Samoylovskaya, A. V. Uspensky, I. F. Klenova, R. A. Peshkov, E. V. Puzanova, A. S. Moskvin
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Fundamental and Applied Parasitology of Animals and Plants named after K. I. Skryabin, 117218 Russia, 28 B. Cheremushkinskaya str., e-mail:,,,


The epizootic situation on main animal helminthosis which we have observed in Russian Federation in the period from 1990 to 2014 allows us to come to the conclusion that the development of epizootic process is affected by ecological components such as: conditions of pastures and water reservoirs, weather and climate especially in current pasture season; therefore it is necessary to conduct the antiparasitic treatment.
Keywords: forecast, epizootic situation, helminthosis.

The epizootic situation on helminthosis in the period of 1990 - 2014 was changing slightly but over the years a strong tendency to its deterioration is registered according to veterinary reports data (Forms 4-Vet. 5-Vet.) as well as reports of the local veterinary institutions (Animal Diseases Control Stations, laboratories etc.), Central Scientific Veterinary Laboratory of RF and scientific-research institutes from different regions of Russia.
The materials collected in 2006 – 2014 were systemized, analyzed and included in the storage database.
The analysis of epizootic situation related to pasture helminthosis in animals shown that the pasture season in 2014 was unfavorable due to adverse environmental effects: abundant precipitation, extensive underflooding, quick snow melting.
In European part of Russia, in Moscow region and contiguous areas, in livestock farms unfavorable for fasciolosis the essential number of mollusks infected with Fasciola larvae successfully overwintered.
The similar fasciolosis epizootic situation in ruminants was observed in Kursk, Ryasan, Kaluga, Tver, Smolensk and other contiguous regions, especially in northwestern region of Russia that allows us to forecast the occurrence of helminthosis and fasciolosis in 2015 within the standard time limits.
A constantly unfavorable epizootic situation was predicted in relation to farm ruminants: deer, elks, wild boars, especially in lower part of northwestern region of Russia, Northern Caucasus and irrigation areas.
In the Far East, in underflooding zones in 2013-2014 the acute outbreaks of fasciolosis, paramphystomatosis, orientobilharziosis, opisthorchiasis, clonorchiasis and other trematodosis whose intermediate hosts are mollusks and different types of fish are possible.
According to information provided by VIGIS and other scientific research institutes in the southern part of Western Siberia, Yakutia, Tuva and in the Far East in zones of extensive underflooding and moisturizing as well as during floods in 2015 the epizootic situation on fasciolosis and paramphystomatosis will deteriorate, especially on paramphystomatosis in Yakutia where the infestation of more than 90% of livestock is predicted.
There is still a tendency for increase of eurytrematosis infestation of livestock (South of Siberia, Tuva, Altai and the Far East) as well as of paramphystomatosis, opisthorchiasis and orientobilharziosis infestations in unfavorable regions of Khabarovsk Krai and the Far East.
On dryland pastures, practically in all geographic regions of Russia, especially in South, incidence of dicrocoeliasis in livestock is not excluded.
Abundant precipitation in summer season in European part of Russia in agricultural regions of Altai and Siberia may cause dictyocaulosis, mulleriosis and protostrongylosis in domestic and wild ruminants as well as horses. An increase of strongilata populations and pasture contamination create a potential threat for outbreaks of strongylatosis and livestock mortality.
In different climate zones of Russia the deterioration of epizootic situation on cestodosis is expected (echinococcosis, taeniosis, coenurosis) because Echinococcus and Taeniasis infection in dogs in Nothern Caucausus and Lower Volga region was constantly at 100 % level over the last years. An increase of zoonotic parasite infections in ruminants is predicted.
In regions suffered from droughts: in Southern Europe and Western Siberia helmintosis do not pose massive threat except of echinococcosis and coenurosis.
Observations of epizootic situation in 1990-2014 on main helminthosis in animals allow to make a conclusion that the development of epizootic process at helminthosis is affected by ecological components: condition of pastures and water reservoirs, weather conditions (climate), number of intermediate and final hosts, food reserves for wild animals etc.
A strong tendency for the prevalence of helminthosis especially in the previous pasture season is determined; therefore the antiparasitic treatment is required.
The forecast of epizootic situation also depends on the fact that over the last years only isolated cases of larval cestodes in cattle were registered (according to Registration Form 1-Vet. cysticercosis was determined in 3 cattle heads, echinococcosis - in one head). Nevertheless, the common unfavorable tendencies in development of cestodosis persist, in particular, 80 to100% of cattle are infected with moniesiosis.
Trematodes (fascioles) were registered annually in 1200 to 2500 head of cattle. Diagnostic examinations for cattle fasciolosis were conducted on more than 374000 head of cattle (the average infection with fascioles was 0,1%)
Diagnostic examinations for trematodosis are carried out on more than 1,1 million head of cattle.
According to the reports data on occurrence of nematodosis the dehelmitization of 1,4 million head of cattle is conducted.
According to the data of 1-Vet. 800 to 1200 head of cattle get sick from coenurosis, dictyocaulosis and strongylatosis.
Diagnostic examinations for nematodes in sheep are carried out on 827000 head of which more than 17000 head are infected. The Dictyocaulus infection is reported in 266000 head (0,1% of examined samples with larvae)
Nematodosis of sheep is registered annually in more than 2100 head according to reports data for the years 2012 – 2013.
Horses get sick mainly from strongylatosis. 4 to 7 thousand horses were infested.
Helminth infections were detected in more than 4700 dogs on the territory of Russian Federation as well as in Moscow – in more than 1952 dogs.
Since 1973 till present the annual stationary integrated research of fasciolosis epizootic process is conducted. We have studied some features of this disease in the farm “Kamenka” located in Dmitrov district of Moscow region. On the square 15x6 km three permanent pasture areas are provided where the continuous observations on biotope conditions, intermediate hosts (mollusk populations) as well as definitive hosts (cattle, mostly young stock) are performed.
That allows us to conduct biological observations and carry out analysis of that disease which gives us an opportunity to perform forecasts and make conclusions on epizootology of fasciolosis.

© 2015 The Author(s). Published by All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of  Fundamental and Applied Parasitology of Animals and Plants named after K.I. Skryabin. 
This is an open access article under the Agreement of 02.07.2014 (Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI)) and the Agreemnt of 12/06/2014 (CABI org / Human Sciences section)