Areas of application of temperature based DDU models for prevention of Dirofilariasis.

Link t full russian text
Download PDF format

Russian Journal of Parasitology, 2016, V.38, Iss.4
Received: 26.05.2016
Accepted 28.11.2016


Krivorotova E. Y., Nagorny S. A.
FSBI "Rostov Research Institute of Microbiology and Parasitology" Rospotrebnadzor, 344000 Rostov-on-Don, 119 Gazetny per., e-mail:



Objective of research: To study the possibility of using temperature-based models for prevention of dirofilariasis.

Materials and methods. For mathematical modeling of dirofilariasis we use the HDUs-temperature model based on the impact of the average daily temperature on the rate of development of Dirofilaria larvae in mosquitoes.

The amount of 130 DDU (Dirofilaria development units) accumulated in the period no more than 30 days at average daily temperature more than 14◦C is required for the development of Dirofilaria up to the infective stage.

Daily data on average air temperature in Rostov-on-Don (1996 – 2012), Veliky Novgorod (2008 - 2012), Anapa (2008 -2012) and Astrakhan (2008 -2012) were used for the calculation.

Results and discussion. The results of temperature simulation revealed that the DDU model is a low-priority forecasting model for canine dirofilariasis (Pearson's correlation coefficient minus 0.45). The model considers only the average daily temperature and does not consider other factors affecting the incidence rates.

The epidemic season of dirofilariasis in Rostov-on-Don in 1999 - 2012 differed depending on average daily temperatures. Therefore, the earliest date of the transmission of dirofilariasis in that period fell on the 12th of May, 2012; the latest date – on 29th of June, 2001. The optimal time for prevention of canine dirofilariasis has been  defined (in Rostov-on-Don, Anapa and Astrakhan  microfilaricides should be given to dogs from May 15 to November 15; in Veliky Novgorod - from June 15  to  August 31).

Thus, DDU-models (Dirofilaria Development Units) can be used to set time limits for epidemiological season of dirofilariasis and preventive treatment of dogs against dirofilaria.

Keywords: Dirofilariasis; temperature model; Dirofilaria development units (DDU); epidemiological season.



1.      Arakel'yan R. S. Epidemiologo-epizootologicheskie osobennosti dirofilyarioza na territorii Astrakhanskoy oblasti. Аvtoref. dis. … kand. vet. nauk. [Epidemiological and epizootological features of dirofilariasis on the territory of the Astrakhan region. Abst. PhD diss. vet. sci.]. M., 2007. 25 p. (In Russian).

2.      Nagorniy S. A., Krivorotova E. Yu. The role of service dogs in the dissemination of dirofilariasis. Teoriya i praktika bor'by s parazitarnymi boleznyami: mater. dokl. nauch. konf. VIGIS [Proc. sci. pract. conf. «Theory and practice of the struggle against parasitic diseases»]. M., 2012, pp. 266–269 (In Russian).

3.      Chua T. H. Modelling the effect of temperature change on the extrinsic incubation period and reproductive number of Plasmodium falciparum in Malaysia. Trop. Biomed., 2012, vol. 29, nо. 1, pp. 121–128.

4.      Cuervo P. F., Fantozzi M. C., Di Cataldo S. Analysis of climate and extrinsic incubation of Dirofilaria immitis in southern South America. Geospat. Health, 2013, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 175–181.

5.      Ermakova L. A. Nagorny S. A., Krivorotova E. Y., Pshenichnaya N. Y. Comments in response to the authors of «Human dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens in the Russian Federation –remarks concerning epidemiology». Int. J. Inf. Dis., 2014. Mode of access: j.ijid.2014.04.024. – 24.06.2014.

6.      Fischer D., Thomas S. M., Suk J. E. et al. Climate change effects on Chikungunya transmission in Europe: geospatial analysis of vector's climatic suitability and virus' temperature requirements. Int. J. Health Geogr., 2013, vol. 12. Art. 51.

7.      Fortin J. F., Slocombe J. O. D. Temperature requirements for the development of Dirofilaria immitis in Aedes triseriatus and Ae. vexans. Mosq. News, 1981, vol. 41, pp. 625–633.

8.      Genchi C., Rinaldi L., Mortarino M. et al. Climate and Dirofilaria infection in Europe. Vet. Parasitol., 2009, vol. 163, no. 4, pp. 286–292.

9.      Knight D. H., Lok J. B. Seasonality of heartworm infection and implications for chemoprophylaxis. Clin. Tech. Small. Anim. Pract., 1998, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 77–82.

10. Medlock J. M., Barrass I., Kerrod E. et al. Analysis of climatic predictions for extrinsic incubation of Dirofilaria in the United Kingdom. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis., 2007, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 4–14.

11. Rahamat–Langendoen J. C., van Vliet J. A., Reusken C. B. Climate change influences the incidence of arthropod-borne diseases in the Netherlands. Ned. Tijdschr. Geneeskd., 2008, vol. 152, no. 15, pp. 863–868.

12. Slocombe J. O. D., Surgeoner G. A., Srivastava B. Determination of heartworm transmission period and its use in diagnosis and control. Heartworm Symposium '89, Washington, DC, 1989, pp. 19–26.


© 2016 The Author(s). Published by All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Fundamental and Applied Parasitology of Animals and Plants named after K.I. Skryabin. This is an open access article under the Agreement of 02.07.2014 (Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI) and the Agreement of 12.06.2014 ( Sciences section: